We routinely produce Copper-67 (Cu-67) to ensure expanded and reliable supply of this promising radioisotope for the treatment of patients with cancer. Explore what lies ahead for radioisotope manufacturing in Beloit, Wisconsin.


Our isotope processing facility features our chemical processing line and is currently producing Copper-67 (Cu-67) in limited quantities. NorthStar is investing to upscale this process and equipment for large commercial quantities. In addition, this facility includes our analytical testing laboratory and additional hot cells for future isotope processing.


We are currently irradiating and investing to expand our groundbreaking technology to produce Copper-67 (Cu-67) from Zinc-68 (Zn-68) using electron beam accelerators. NorthStar’s unique and proprietary electron accelerator production facility and processes are designed to provide efficiencies throughout the production process, thereby enabling the production of multiple radioisotopes utilizing the same equipment.


We continue our investment in groundbreaking technology to produce non-carrier added Actinium-225 (n.c.a. Ac-225) from Radium-226 (Ra-226) using our electron beam accelerators.  There are several technologies used to produce Ac-225 but none that can independently scale to meet commercial quantities. NorthStar’s method is capable of meeting customer demand. Our stand-alone facility, currently under construction, will fully house our dedicated electron beam accelerator, chemical processing line and all analytical laboratory capabilities.


NorthStar’s Radiopharmaceutical CDMO/CMO unit offers customized services and expertise to accelerate biopharmaceutical companies’ development and commercialization programs. The NorthStar CDMO is the first and only U.S. facility providing commercial-scale, multi-radioisotope production and radiopharmaceutical development all on the same campus. With a 52,000 sq. ft. footprint, it sets new industry standards, serving the growing therapeutic and diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals market. Our facility effectively supports the entire product lifecycle, cGMP manufacturing suites, one EU compliant manufacturing suite and radiation safety programs to ensure high-quality and safe practices.

BIG Innovation

Since 2023, NorthStar has been utilizing groundbreaking technology to produce Copper-67 (Cu-67) and Actinium-225 (Ac-225) using dual Rhodotron® TT300-HE (High Energy) electron-beam accelerators.

NorthStar’s unique electron accelerator-based production method for copper-67 starts with the irradiation of zinc-68, a readily available transition metal. This irradiation method uses accelerated electrons to create photons which knock off a proton from zinc-68, leading to the production of high purity copper-67 in commercial quantities. Any zinc-68 target material not irradiated can be recovered, reprocessed and reused in future copper-67 production cycles. As NorthStar’s environmentally preferred electron accelerator-based program is powered by electricity, there are no long-lasting radioactive waste products introduced to the environment during the production process.

Similarly, NorthStar is creating the first-in-kind electron accelerator-based program for the commercial-scale production of Ac-225.  This unique method will irradiate radium-226 with produced photons, which causes a neutron to be knocked off, leading to radium-225, which is then used as a source for non-carrier added Ac-225. The radium-225 sources are stored in a source farm with each source generating various quantities of non-carrier added Ac-225. After a period of source decay, radium can then be removed and reprocessed to recover radium-226, then re-irradiated and reused.


A filament in the cathode gets red hot, and electrons boil off and enter the accelerator cavity. The electrons travel across the cavity, and then get turned around by electromagnets in order to pass through the cavity again. Each time the electron makes a pass, it picks up energy. Each electron goes back and forth across the cavity in a daisy-chain pattern, and after 12 passes, the electrons emerge traveling at nearly the speed of light. At 40 million electron volts of energy, this is 300,000 times more energy than an electron has in your house wiring.



NorthStar is utilizing environmentally preferred production technology for its high purity n.c.a. Ac-225 and Cu-67. Electron accelerators will produce these radioisotopes, which are free of long-lived radioactive contaminants and byproducts associated with many other production methods, which pose regulatory and waste management challenges for hospitals and health systems.